Plasma Kinetics

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Plasma-kinetics.jpg

Responsible, Renewable, Energy Systems

Energy Transport

Problem

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Clean Energy providers need safe and cost-effective means to store and distribute energy in a 24-billion-dollar hydrogen market.

Current clean energy storage and distribution methods are complex or costly:

Battery Storage
  • Expensive
  • Not recycled & creates toxic waste
  • Heavy and potentially flammable
Traditional Hydrogen Storage
  • Compressed to 3,000 -10,000 (200-700 bar)
  • Cooled to −423 °F (-252 °C)
  • Potentially flammable or explosive
Chemical Hydrogen Storage
Ammonia
  • Compressed and stored at 160 psi (11 bar)
  • Synthesis/cracking is costly
Methanol
  • Synthesis/cracking is costly
  • Potentially flammable

Solution

Solution.jpg
Nano-Photonic
  • Containers of nano-photonic light-activated solid-state hydrogen thin film with no compression, no flammability and easy transport.
LAH

Light Activated Hydrogen

Hydrogen stored in light activated (LAH) 17 kg H2 solid-state canisters.

  • No pressure or cooling needed
  • No risk of fire or explosion
  • No transportation restrictions
  • Lower cost than batteries
  • Lower cost to ship hydrogen
  • 1000 kg of H2 per 20 ft container bulk load
Sources
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Hydrogen is absorbed into light activated film from multiple sources:

  • Wind/Solar - Electrolysis
  • Flue Gases
  • Temperatures 20 to 400°C
  • Pressures 1 to 40 bar
  • CO2 concentration up to 30% Molar Mass

Results

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  • 7005 to 10038 containers of hydrogen on a single container ship without modification or hazard.
  • Containerized shipments allow immediate distribution onto inland waterway, truck or rail transportation at destination port.
  • No need for compression, decompression, specialized ships, or certifications.
  • Hydrogen shipments of any size, at any time, reduces logistics and increases revenue by providing distributed global customers just-in-time deliveries.

Market Opportunity

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  • Global H2 market is expected to reach USD 24.5B by 2027. - Allied Market Research
  • Global H2 Storage market will reach USD 992M in 2026. – Prescient and Strategic Intelligence
  • Solid H2 storage is projected to be the most lucrative segment by 2027. - Allied Market Research
  • PacifiCorp reports USD 2B annually would be saved with clean energy over-generation management. - PacifiCorp
  • Germany is creating 10 GW of electrolysis capacity for green H2 by 2040. - CSIS
  • European Truck manufactures agree to drop diesel by 2040. - ACEA
  • U.S. ports restricting diesel use for berthed vessels to less than 20% of time in port and added emission control regulations. – U.S. EIA
  • European ports require 55% reduction in emissions by 2023. – ESPO
  • Maersk shipping will go carbon free by 2050. - Maersk
  • There are 20.5 million intermodal containers world-wide.
  • The global hydrogen generation market is USD 120.77B. An exponential increase in the demand for green fuel and government regulations to control pollution is driving the market. – Grand View Research
  • 95% of the 70 million metric tons of H2 produced annually is gray hydrogen and over 70% of gray hydrogen is produced from natural gas which yields 10 kg of CO2 per kg of H2. Blue H2 yields 2 to 5 kg of CO2 per kg H2. Green hydrogen from solar and wind can be carbon free and needs cost effective storage. - Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • Light Activated Solid State hydrogen requires no energy to store the hydrogen, is less than 50% the cost of batteries, and approximates the cost of compressed or liquid storage without the energy cost of compression or cooling, or risk of fire.

Business Model

  • Build real-world hydrogen storage and transport application prototypes.
  • Build pre-ordered hydrogen storage and transport products in concert with potential manufacturing licensee(s).
  • Build relationships with hydrogen producers to store and ship hydrogen via container-based canisters.
  • Build collection and distribution models based on shortlisted hydrogen producers and shortlisted countries.
  • Build relationships with OEM truck manufactures and ship builders to implement distributed hydrogen directly from canisters without the need for compressed or liquid refueling stations.
  • License technology for H2 producers (bio-gasification, syngas, wind and solar) and end-users (automotive, aerospace and marine, microgrids, oil refining, forklifts, airport tugs, home backup systems, data centers).

Current interest from

  • U.S. Military (all branches), NASA, Boeing, Transcend Aero
  • Major Truck Manufactures
  • Wind/Solar over-production storage (value $100/kWh or USD $8B world-wide)

Technical

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What is Nano-Photonic H2 Thin Film?

A 0.028 mm non-flammable thin film with a nano-structure which captures hydrogen without pressure and interacts with light to release hydrogen at high pressure.

  • 7 constituents (no rare-earths)
  • PVD layering of materials
  • NGF (nano-graphite-film) substrate
  • High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy
  • Post deposition nano-lithography
  • Low CO2 fabrication process

How does it work?

Like a movie projector or CD player. Light shines on the film or disc to release hydrogen.

Uniqueness

Angstroms thick shape memory alloy layers and metal hydride nanostructured layers provide a dielectric with black state forming constituents and a lower bond energy.

Photon absorption and polariton resonance support dissociative amplitude energies on photonic irradiation.

The result is safe, efficient, high-density, photo-reactive, solid-state hydrogen energy storage.

Relevance

Task 3 Plasmonic ‘on-demand’ hydrogen release in hydrogen carriers

Plasmonic nanostructures concentrate photon energy and can produce heat via the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)

  • plasmonic nanostructures act to locally and temporally heat a limited region
  • LSPR and its local intensity is determined by the material shape, size and crystallinity

Plasmonic Hot Carriers - using low-energy photons, generate high energy electrons and holes

Utilize low energy light source to induce hydrogen sorption/desorption reactions and phase changes thermally and/or electrochemically

Accomplishment

Plasmonic ‘on-demand’ hydrogen release

Hydrogen Desorption using Photons – Mg(BH4)2 and MgH2

  • Mix: 20 nm TiN with Mg(BH4)2 or MgH2
  • ALD: Atomic layer deposition of TiN on Mg(BH4)2
  • MBH: Mg(BH4)2
  • 700 nm no hydrogen evolution
  • 625 nm (plasmonic heating) only H2 and B2H6 observed
  • 385 nm (hot carrier) H2, B2H6 and possibly B3H8, and B2H7 observed

Preliminary Indications:

  • Non-optimized
  • 625 nm – thermal degradation
  • 385 nm – electrochemical reaction
  • Dual illumination and in-situ studies underway

Fabrication

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  • Nano graphite film substrate
  • Layered PVD deposition
  • Post-PVD lithographic nano-structures
  • Superhydrophobic surface reduces wetting

Overview

  • Light activated hydrogen storage film
  • UL 94 V-0 non-flammable
  • Tensile strength 35kg/cm
  • Dielectric strength 8,000 volts
  • Resistant to crepitation
  • Heat resistant
  • Rechargeable without pressure
  • H2 absorption in minutes
  • Rechargeable over a hundred cycles
  • Recyclable
  • No rare-earth elements
  • Non-toxic
  • Resistant to contamination

Implementation

  • Film stored in external canister
  • Film rolls up in internal canister
  • Light shines on ½ of film
  • Hydrogen is released to fuel cell
  • Lasers shift to other ½ of film
  • Film rolls back to external canister
  • Light on ½ of film on roll-back
  • Hydrogen is released to fuel cell
  • Laser canister moves
  • Next film section rolls up
  • Process repeats three times
  • 1 internal for 2 external canisters

Storage & Release

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17Kg H2 Canister

Volume

  • 0.04 m3/kg H2
  • 0.00124 m3/kWh
  • 806 kWh/m3

Weight

  • 400 kg system wt.
  • 33.4 kg/kg H2
  • 1.0 kg/kWh

H2 Charging Hood

  • No pressure
  • Multiple canisters
  • No fire risk

H2 Charged in 20ft Container

  • 70 canisters (1000 Kg) charged
  • Charging time 30 - 60 minutes

Benefits & Value

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  • No pressure
  • Non-flammable
  • Long shelf-life
  • Quick recharging
  • Multiple fuel sources
  • Safe
  • Economical
  • Transportable
  • Quiet
  • Zero Carbon
  • Minimal Infrastructure  Distributable

Comparison

LAH Energy Density ≈ 350 bar compressed H2 without pressure

Trucking
Energy Efficiency

Plasma Kinetics Light Activated H2 storage approximates battery efficiency.

Problem Wind/Solar Overproduction

Wind and Solar Farms need a way to provide energy 24/7

  • 502 federally funded and 416 Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the U.S.

404 GWh of Solar/Wind Energy produced in 2020 with a 20% oversupply during daylight hours. - US Energy Information Administration (EIA) PacifiCorp reports $2 Billion annually would be saved with over generation management.