Responsible, Renewable, Energy Systems
Clean Energy providers need safe and cost-effective means to store and distribute energy in a 24-billion-dollar hydrogen market.
Current clean energy storage and distribution methods are complex or costly:
- Not recycled & creates toxic waste
- Heavy and potentially flammable
Traditional Hydrogen Storage
- Compressed to 3,000 -10,000 (200-700 bar)
- Cooled to −423 °F (-252 °C)
- Potentially flammable or explosive
Chemical Hydrogen Storage
- Compressed and stored at 160 psi (11 bar)
- Synthesis/cracking is costly
- Synthesis/cracking is costly
- Potentially flammable
- Containers of nano-photonic light-activated solid-state hydrogen thin film with no compression, no flammability and easy transport.
Light Activated Hydrogen
Hydrogen stored in light activated (LAH) 17 kg H2 solid-state canisters.
- No pressure or cooling needed
- No risk of fire or explosion
- No transportation restrictions
- Lower cost than batteries
- Lower cost to ship hydrogen
- 1000 kg of H2 per 20 ft container bulk load
Hydrogen is absorbed into light activated film from multiple sources:
- Wind/Solar - Electrolysis
- Flue Gases
- Temperatures 20 to 400°C
- Pressures 1 to 40 bar
- CO2 concentration up to 30% Molar Mass
- 7005 to 10038 containers of hydrogen on a single container ship without modification or hazard.
- Containerized shipments allow immediate distribution onto inland waterway, truck or rail transportation at destination port.
- No need for compression, decompression, specialized ships, or certifications.
- Hydrogen shipments of any size, at any time, reduces logistics and increases revenue by providing distributed global customers just-in-time deliveries.
- Global H2 market is expected to reach USD 24.5B by 2027. - Allied Market Research
- Global H2 Storage market will reach USD 992M in 2026. – Prescient and Strategic Intelligence
- Solid H2 storage is projected to be the most lucrative segment by 2027. - Allied Market Research
- PacifiCorp reports USD 2B annually would be saved with clean energy over-generation management. - PacifiCorp
- Germany is creating 10 GW of electrolysis capacity for green H2 by 2040. - CSIS
- European Truck manufactures agree to drop diesel by 2040. - ACEA
- U.S. ports restricting diesel use for berthed vessels to less than 20% of time in port and added emission control regulations. – U.S. EIA
- European ports require 55% reduction in emissions by 2023. – ESPO
- Maersk shipping will go carbon free by 2050. - Maersk
- There are 20.5 million intermodal containers world-wide.
- The global hydrogen generation market is USD 120.77B. An exponential increase in the demand for green fuel and government regulations to control pollution is driving the market. – Grand View Research
- 95% of the 70 million metric tons of H2 produced annually is gray hydrogen and over 70% of gray hydrogen is produced from natural gas which yields 10 kg of CO2 per kg of H2. Blue H2 yields 2 to 5 kg of CO2 per kg H2. Green hydrogen from solar and wind can be carbon free and needs cost effective storage. - Center for Strategic and International Studies.
- Light Activated Solid State hydrogen requires no energy to store the hydrogen, is less than 50% the cost of batteries, and approximates the cost of compressed or liquid storage without the energy cost of compression or cooling, or risk of fire.
- Build real-world hydrogen storage and transport application prototypes.
- Build pre-ordered hydrogen storage and transport products in concert with potential manufacturing licensee(s).
- Build relationships with hydrogen producers to store and ship hydrogen via container-based canisters.
- Build collection and distribution models based on shortlisted hydrogen producers and shortlisted countries.
- Build relationships with OEM truck manufactures and ship builders to implement distributed hydrogen directly from canisters without the need for compressed or liquid refueling stations.
- License technology for H2 producers (bio-gasification, syngas, wind and solar) and end-users (automotive, aerospace and marine, microgrids, oil refining, forklifts, airport tugs, home backup systems, data centers).
Current interest from
- U.S. Military (all branches), NASA, Boeing, Transcend Aero
- Major Truck Manufactures
- Wind/Solar over-production storage (value $100/kWh or USD $8B world-wide)
What is Nano-Photonic H2 Thin Film?
A 0.028 mm non-flammable thin film with a nano-structure which captures hydrogen without pressure and interacts with light to release hydrogen at high pressure.
- 7 constituents (no rare-earths)
- PVD layering of materials
- NGF (nano-graphite-film) substrate
- High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy
- Post deposition nano-lithography
- Low CO2 fabrication process
How does it work?
Like a movie projector or CD player. Light shines on the film or disc to release hydrogen.
Angstroms thick shape memory alloy layers and metal hydride nanostructured layers provide a dielectric with black state forming constituents and a lower bond energy.
Photon absorption and polariton resonance support dissociative amplitude energies on photonic irradiation.
The result is safe, efficient, high-density, photo-reactive, solid-state hydrogen energy storage.
Task 3 Plasmonic ‘on-demand’ hydrogen release in hydrogen carriers
Plasmonic nanostructures concentrate photon energy and can produce heat via the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)
- plasmonic nanostructures act to locally and temporally heat a limited region
- LSPR and its local intensity is determined by the material shape, size and crystallinity
Plasmonic Hot Carriers - using low-energy photons, generate high energy electrons and holes
Utilize low energy light source to induce hydrogen sorption/desorption reactions and phase changes thermally and/or electrochemically
Plasmonic ‘on-demand’ hydrogen release
Hydrogen Desorption using Photons – Mg(BH4)2 and MgH2
- Mix: 20 nm TiN with Mg(BH4)2 or MgH2
- ALD: Atomic layer deposition of TiN on Mg(BH4)2
- MBH: Mg(BH4)2
- 700 nm no hydrogen evolution
- 625 nm (plasmonic heating) only H2 and B2H6 observed
- 385 nm (hot carrier) H2, B2H6 and possibly B3H8, and B2H7 observed
- 625 nm – thermal degradation
- 385 nm – electrochemical reaction
- Dual illumination and in-situ studies underway
- Nano graphite film substrate
- Layered PVD deposition
- Post-PVD lithographic nano-structures
- Superhydrophobic surface reduces wetting
- Light activated hydrogen storage film
- UL 94 V-0 non-flammable
- Tensile strength 35kg/cm
- Dielectric strength 8,000 volts
- Resistant to crepitation
- Heat resistant
- Rechargeable without pressure
- H2 absorption in minutes
- Rechargeable over a hundred cycles
- No rare-earth elements
- Resistant to contamination
- Film stored in external canister
- Film rolls up in internal canister
- Light shines on ½ of film
- Hydrogen is released to fuel cell
- Lasers shift to other ½ of film
- Film rolls back to external canister
- Light on ½ of film on roll-back
- Hydrogen is released to fuel cell
- Laser canister moves
- Next film section rolls up
- Process repeats three times
- 1 internal for 2 external canisters
Storage & Release
17Kg H2 Canister
- 0.04 m3/kg H2
- 0.00124 m3/kWh
- 806 kWh/m3
- 400 kg system wt.
- 33.4 kg/kg H2
- 1.0 kg/kWh
H2 Charging Hood
- No pressure
- Multiple canisters
- No fire risk
H2 Charged in 20ft Container
- 70 canisters (1000 Kg) charged
- Charging time 30 - 60 minutes
Benefits & Value
- No pressure
- Long shelf-life
- Quick recharging
- Multiple fuel sources
- Zero Carbon
- Minimal Infrastructure Distributable
LAH Energy Density ≈ 350 bar compressed H2 without pressure
Plasma Kinetics Light Activated H2 storage approximates battery efficiency.
Problem Wind/Solar Overproduction
Wind and Solar Farms need a way to provide energy 24/7
- 502 federally funded and 416 Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the U.S.
404 GWh of Solar/Wind Energy produced in 2020 with a 20% oversupply during daylight hours. - US Energy Information Administration (EIA) PacifiCorp reports $2 Billion annually would be saved with over generation management.